And now, for something completely different... an alternate philosophical scenario.
The POD here is that Ludwig Wittgenstein died of an infectious disease while staying prisoner in WWI, right after he wrote the Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus. The text was only discovered decades later, and would have a great impact in his native Austria in the inmediate postwar, but it would have a rather different, esoteric interpretation. The main academic effects:
Popper would have a much greater impact. "Logical Positivism" here means "Analytical philosophy", a much more restrictive, rejected and controversial label from which the British Academia has been expurged.
Philosophy of language and cognitive sciences are a bit behind OTL, but eventually a group of American philosophers came up with something relatively close to what the late Wittgenstein researched (that's what the "Holistic Program" means)
The Continental schools were object of different kinds of debate, and their mutual differences were sharpened. Eventually there was not a single "continental school" to speak of, as there is not a monolithic "analytical school" to antagonize. Heidegger, in spite of influencing Sartre as IOTL, has eventually become a minor, more obscure philosopher. Hannah Arendt is considered hard to classify, a link between the Existential and the Phenomenic School.
There's not a Postmodernism to speak of, but some schools resemble a lot, especially what emerged from Post-Soviet Russia.
Finally, the American Pragmatic schools suffered a schism around a strong vs weak notion of truth. That's what allows Putnam to be classified as "Paleopragmatist", rather than Neopragmatist as IOTL.
Wittgenstein's Fideist approach to the mystique through the logical structure of the world is taught by a closed elite that is the target of many conspiracy theorists. They have temples in Anchorage, Seattle, San Francisco, Houston, Omaha, Raleigh, New York City, Boston, Montreal, Rio de Janeiro, Buenos Aires, Reykjavik, Santiago de Compostela, Bilbao, Geneva, Paris, London, Edimburgh, Copenhagen, Hanover, Vienna, Cracow, Stockholm, Rome, Budapest, St. Petersburg, Cape Town, Tokyo, Fukuoka, Melbourne and Wellington.